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Monocyte differentiation and macrophage polarization

Circulating monocytes are recruited to tissues, where they differentiate to macrophages and take part in the inflammation process or tissue remodeling. According to the traditional concept, macrophages are classified into pro-inflammatory (M1), non-activated (M0) or anti-inflammatory (M2)...

Chemical composition of circulating native and desialylated low density lipoprotein: what is the difference?

Atherosclerosis and related cardiovascular disorders remain the leading global cause of morbidity and mortality. Modified low density lipoprotein (LDL) is considered to play a crucial role in atherosclerosis development. During the past decades, several types of atherogenic LDL modification have...

PCSK9 inhibitors and their use in advanced heart failure and heart transplant recipients

The use of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors has garnered widespread attention in the medical community over the past ten years. A number of landmark trials have demonstrated the efficacy of PCSK9 inhibitors in lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels...

Incathlab Bloopers 2020

Dear members, sponsors & partners, 2020 has left a lasting impression in a new world full of face masks and social distancing; but it also marked a major evolution in training methods. Remote connections, digital conferences and on demand videos are the new key words of...

Routine use of cerebral protection devices during transcatheter aortic valve implantation: what does the evidence say?

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a well-established treatment for symptomatic severe aortic stenosis in intermediate and high-risk patients. However, as TAVI indications increase, concerns regarding adverse events and complications rise in the same proportion. Stroke is one of...

Frozen elephant trunk: assets and liabilities of a challenging technique

The development of the frozen elephant trunk (FET) technique for a simplified treatment of complex lesions of the thoracic aorta originated as an evolution of the classic elephant trunk technique, described for the first time by Borst et al in 1983. Novel technologies and standardization of the...

Frontiers in endovascular thrombectomy for ischemic stroke

Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There have been significant advances in the hyperacute treatment of patients with ischemic stroke with the advent and application of reperfusion therapies, including intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular thrombectomy....

Recent advances in cerebral cavernous malformation research

Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) are manifested by microvascular lesions characterized by leaky endothelial cells with minimal intervening parenchyma predominantly in the central nervous system predisposed to hemorrhagic stroke, resulting in focal neurological defects. Till date, three...

Oxidative stress and inflammation in the development of cardiovascular disease and contrast induced nephropathy

Utilization of contrast media to visualize vasculature structures in the setting of cardiovascular disorders (CVD) can lead to acute kidney injury, referred to as contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). CIN can potentiate mortality and hospitalization in aged individuals, patients with CVD,...

Risk factors adversely impacting post coronary artery bypass grafting longer-term vs. shorter-term clinical outcomes

Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients’ characteristics and surgical techniques associated with short-term (ST; < 1 year) mortality are well documented; however, the literature pinpointing factors predictive of longer-term (LT; ≥ 1 year) death rates are more limited. Thus,...

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